Beta-caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene. It is a unique terpene due to its large size and structure. Due to these properties, beta-caryophyllene is able to activate several receptors in the body, including CB2, which is usually activated most by CBD. Beta-caryophyllene has been shown to be an effective analgesic by regulating neuroinflammation and thermal hyperalgesia. Also as an antioxidant, beta-caryophyllene is effective as demonstrated by preventing lipid oxidation and scavenging other radicals. As and anti-inflammatory beta-caryophyllene has been proven to mediate kidney inflammation and its side effects. In addition, beta-caryophyllene has been eluted to be a gastric-protective.
The analgesic effects of beta-caryophyllene were evaluated in the rabbit conjunctival reflex test and in a rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation. Beta-caryophyllene attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, and reduced spinal neuroinflammation. Also there were no signs of tolerance to the anti-hyperalgesic effects of BCP after prolonged treatment.
- Local anaesthetic activity of β-caryophyllene
- The cannabinoid CB2 receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain
Beta-caryophyllene was demonstrated to have a high inhibitory capacity on lipid peroxidation and showed high scavenging activities against hydroxyl radicals and the superoxide anion.
- The antioxidant effect of β-caryophyllene protects rat liver from carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation
In kidney cells, beta- caryophyllene successfully ameliorated cisplatin-induced kidney dysfunction, morphological damage, and renal inflammatory response. The effect of the compound was also correlated to mitigate oxidative and nitrative stress.
- β-Caryophyllene ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in a cannabinoid 2 receptor-dependent manner
Caryophyllene was indicated to significantly inhibit gastric mucosal injuries induced by necrotizing agents, yet barely affects the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin. Caryophyllene produced anti-inflammatory effects, without indication of gastric mucosal damage typical of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents like aspirin and ibuprofen.
- β-Caryophyllene Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice through CB2 Receptor Activation and PPARγ Pathway